Durian is the edible fruit of several tree species belonging to the Durio genus. There are 30 recognized species of Durio, at least nine of which produce edible fruit. Durio zibethinus, native to Indonesia in the island of Borneo (Kalimantan) and Sumatra, is the only species available on the international market. There are over 300 named varieties in Thailand and 100 in Malaysia.

The name "Durian" is derived from the Indonesian/Malaysian word duri (meaning 'thorn'), a reference to the numerous prickly thorns on its rind.

Indonesia has more than 103 varieties of Durian. The most cultivated species is Durio zibethinus. Notable varieties are Sukun durian (Central Java), sitokong (West Jawa), sijapang (West Jawa), Simas (West Jawa), Sunan (Jepara), si dodol, and si hijau (South Kalimantan), Petruk (Central Java), Kane/Chanee (Bali) and Musang King (Bali and East Jawa).


Raw durian is composed of 65% water, 27% carbohydrates (including 4% dietary fibre), 5% fat and 1% protein. In 100 grams, raw or fresh frozen durian provides 33% of the Daily Value (DV) of thiamine and moderate content of other B vitamins, vitamin C, and the dietary mineral manganese (15–24% DV, table). 

Different durian varieties vary in their carbohydrate content by 16–29%, fat content by 2–5%, protein content by 2–4%, dietary fibre content by 1–4%, and caloric value by 84–185 kcal per 100 grams. 

The fatty acid composition of durian flesh is particularly rich in oleic acid and palmitic acid.